Baccini L, Urpelainen J. International institutions and domestic politics: Can preferential trade agreements help heads of state and government advance economic reforms? J Politics. (2014) 76:195-214. doi: 10.1017/S00223813001278 On 17 July 2018, the largest bilateral agreement between the EU and Japan was signed, reducing or ending tariffs on most of the goods traded, worth $152 billion. It will enter into force in 2019, after ratification. The deal will hurt U.S. car and agriculture exporters. Bilateral agreements are not the same as trade agreements. The latter involves the reduction or elimination of import quotas, export restrictions, tariffs and other interstate trade barriers. Rules on trade agreements are also set by the World Trade Organization (WTO). . .