In the mid-19th century, Protestant missions worked actively on the Guinean coast, in South Africa and in the zanzibar kingdoms. Missionaries visited little-known regions and peoples and often became explorers and pioneers of commerce and the Empire. David Livingstone, a Scottish missionary, had been working north of the Orange River since 1840. In 1849 Livingstone crossed the Kalahari Desert from south to north and reached Lake Ngami. Between 1851 and 1856, he crossed the continent from west to east and discovered the great waterways of the high Zambezi River. In November 1855 Livingstone became the first European to see the famous Victoria Falls, named after the Queen of the United Kingdom. From 1858 to 1864 the Lower Zambezi, the Shire River and Livingstone Nyasa Lake were explored. Nyasa was first joined by the confidential slave of Antonio da Silva Porto, a Portuguese merchant from Bié in Angola who crossed Africa between 1853 and 1856, from Benguella to the mouth of the Rovuma. A priority target for explorers was to locate the source of the Nile. Expeditions of Burton and Speke (1857-1858) and Speke and Grant (1863) on Lake Tanganjika and Lake Victoria.
It eventually turned out that the Nile was sinking. The Berlin conference is better understood as the formalization of The Scramble for Africa. This Briton used the term in 1884, and has since been used to describe the twenty years during which the various European powers explored, divided, conquered and began to exploit virtually the entire African continent. The European powers slowly realized the benefits of land-use solicitation in Africa and clung mainly to coastal colonies. But in 1884/5, the battle for Africa had really begun in earnest, when thirteen European countries and the United States met in Berlin to approve the rules that divide Africa. The outcome of the conference was the general law of the Berlin conference. The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, also known as the Congo Conference or West Africa, regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the period of the new imperialism and coincided with The sudden rise of Germany into imperial power. The conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck, Germany`s first chancellor. Its outcome, the general law of the Berlin conference, may be seen as a formalization of the fight for Africa, but some historians warn against a tailor-made role in the colonial division of Africa and draw attention to bilateral agreements concluded before and after the conference.   The conference helped to launch a period of strengthened colonial activities by European powers that eliminated or superimposed most of the existing forms of African autonomy and autonomy.  While the number of voters varied by country, the following 14 countries sent representatives to the Berlin conference and signed the following law in Berlin: Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States. There were no African representatives at the conference, although their rhetoric stressed the usefulness for Africa.
Before the conference, European diplomats addressed African governments in the same way as in the Western Hemisphere, linking them to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the manufacture of luxury goods, led many European distributors to Africa`s domestic markets.  Europe`s spheres of power and influence were then limited to coastal Africa, with Europeans having until then established only commercial posts.  Historians have long marked the Berlin conference in the formalization of Scramble for Africa, but recent scholarships have questioned the legal and economic impact of the conference.  The conference took place on Saturday, November 15, 1884 at the headquarters of Bismarck, on the Wilhelmstrasse.